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Please note: An explanation of each test is included at the bottom of this page.

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Explanation of the DNA Testing

Beta-casein (A2 Genotyping)
Genetic variants of beta-casein, a protein of cow’s milk, can be classified into two groups, A1 and A2, based on the specific amino acid in position 67 of the protein. This A1 and/or A2 group designation may be of interest to breeders developing herds for human health benefits.

Beta-lactoglobulin is the major whey protein gene. Two common variants, A and B, are associated with different concentrations of beta-lactoglobulin protein in cow’s milk.

Bulldog Dwarfism (Chondrodysplasia) in Dexters
Bulldog dwarfism is a lethal genetic defect of Dexter cattle. Affected fetuses have severe disproportionate dwarfism, a short vertebral column, a large head, and are naturally aborted around seven months of gestation. The two known mutations are specific to Dexter cattle and may be present in Dexter crossbreds.

Bulldog Dwarfism (Chondrodysplasia) in Miniature Zebus
Bulldog dwarfism is a lethal genetic defect of Miniature Zebu cattle. Affected fetuses have disproportionate dwarfism, a short and compressed vertebral column, a large head, short, stocky limbs, and are naturally aborted around seven months of gestation. The mutation that causes this defect is specific to Zebu cattle and is different from the Dexter mutations.

Cholesterol Deficiency (CD) in Holsteins
Cholesterol deficiency (CD) is a recessive genetic disorder in Holstein cattle that affects lipid metabolism and causes young calves to die as a consequence of chronic diarrhea and failure to thrive.

Color Dilution in Charolais, Highland, Simmental, Galloway, and Hereford Cattle
Variants in the PMEL17 gene (aka SILV) cause a color dilution from red or black to pale cream or white coat color. This gene has a dosage-dependent effect on pigment, with a single allele diluting black to gray and red to pale red, and a double dose producing a significantly lighter coat.

Dominant Red (Variant Red) in Holsteins
Holsteins with the Dominant Red variant have red and white coats inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. The gene underlying this coloration is independent from the other major gene (MC1R) that controls black and red color in Holstein cattle.

Dun Color in Dexters
The dun coloration in Dexter cattle is caused by the dilution of black pigment in the hair, producing shades of dark brown to gold. This color dilution is caused by a recessive mutation.

A freemartin is a female that is born as a twin with a male and is sterile as a result of exposure to masculinizing hormones produced by the male in utero.

Kappa-casein is an important gene for protein yield and percentage in milk. Two common variants, A and B, are associated with different concentrations of kappa-casein protein in cow’s milk.

MC1R (Extension) – Red/Black
The Melanocortin 1 Receptor (MC1R) gene (also called Extension) controls the production of black and red pigments in the coats of domestic cattle, creating base colors that may then be further modified by other genes.

MC1R including Black/Red (Telstar) in Holsteins
The Melanocortin-1 Receptor gene (MC1R), also called Extension (E), controls black and red pigment production in cattle. In Holsteins, there are four known variants including Black/Red (Telstar).

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report
This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents. The markers reported include the 12 ISAG-recommended markers for cattle. Genotypes follow the international nomenclature standard for cattle.

Paunch Calf Syndrome (PCS) in Romagnola Cattle
Paunch calf syndrome (PCS) is an inherited lethal defect of Romagnola cattle characterized by abnormal development of multiple organs, craniofacial deformities, an enlarged fluid-filled abdomen, and liver fibrosis. Affected calves are usually stillborn.

Polled vs. Horned
Polled cattle breeds have been selectively bred to lack horns. Polledness is a dominant trait: all offspring of a bull with 2 copies of a polled-associated mutation will be polled themselves.

Progressive Ataxia in Charolais Cattle
Progressive ataxia (PA) of Charolais cattle is an inherited neurodegenerative disease affecting the hind limbs that can gradually progress until the affected animal is unable to stand.

Pseudomyotonia (PMT) in Chianina and Romagnola Cattle

Congenital pseudomyotonia (PMT) is a recessive genetic defect seen in Chianina and Romagnola cattle that impairs muscle function and is characterized by exercise-induced muscle cramping.

Pulmonary Hypoplasia with Anasarca (PHA) in Dexters
Pulmonary hypoplasia with anasarca (PHA) is a lethal genetic defect characterized by incomplete development of the lungs and severe subcutaneous fluid accumulation, leading to abortion or the birth of a dead calf.

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